Democracy Monument is located on ThanonRachadumnoen. The monument was commissioned to commemorate the 1932 Siamese coup d’état which led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy.
The foundation was erected on 24 June 1939 during the premiership of General PibulSongkram, designed byM.L. PumMalakul and sculpted by SitthidechSaenghirun.Prof SilpPeerasri is the supervisor of constructing the monument. General Pibul presided over the opening of this moment on 24 March 1940 with his speech:
“The monument will be the center of all prosperity and progress in that it is the start point of many main avenues. Several classic buildings are under way of construction on Rachadumnoen Avenue as honor of the country and a response to King Rama V who set his mind that this avenue will be a pride.”
It is a relief sculpture, representing a palm-leaf manuscript box holding the Thai Constitutionon top of two golden offering bowls above a round turret made of copper of 3 meters in height which weighs 4 tons on the foundations in spherical shape on top. The base is elevated with small steps. The Constitution is symbolically guarded by four wing-like structures carved with embossed carvings and tiny fences surrounding the monument. There were originally 75 small cannon around the outer ring of the monument. The wings are 24 meters high, and this is also the radius of the base of the monument, marking the fact that the 1932 coup took place on 24 June.
The box is 3 meters high, representing the third month or June (originally April was the first month of the year) in which the coup took place and representing 3 powerful branches of the government (the executive, the legislative and the judicial). Moreover, 75 small cannon around the outer ring of the monument represent the year of the coup, 2475 in the Buddhist calendar. The chains represent the unity of the revolutionists. The 4 reliefs at the base focus on the procedure of the revolutionary council during their meeting and carrying out the revolution on 24 June 1932. The six gates of the turret represent the six proclaimed policies of the Phibul regime: “independence, internal peace, equality, freedom, economy and education.”